One of the Apostles, Simon the Zealot, belonged to that Jewish political party that were anxious for home-rule without being rebellious towards Rome.
But after the year 60 A.D. a faction of the Zealots became vicious, with those members carrying short daggers known as "shikas." The shika bearing Shikaries took to laying in ambush for Roman patrol.
The Roman senate were perplexed as to ways to deal with the Shikaries who hid themselves in Jerusalem's back alleys. With the dour situation causing the Roman senators to throw up their hands, in the year 69 A.D. they reached the drastic decision to send their General Vespasian to completely destroy Jerusalem.
Vespasian sealed off Jerusalem, constructing massive catapults to throw fire and destruction on the temple and its surrounding city.
In Jerusalem, the Pharisees had opposed to the Shikaries, always remaining obedient to Rome, and so Vespasian allowed the Pharisees and their families to leave Jerusalem, and to travel to Jamnia, a camp the Pharisees owned on the Mediterranean.
Settled in there, this "people of the temple" were perplexed as to what they should call themselves since the destruction of their temple.
Now, back in 450 A.D. the Jews had decided on taking the old Law of Moses as their civil law. That had been good enough, but subsequently they had added thousands of new laws, the Mishna, to the genuine Law.
In today's reading Paul said, "It was not through the law (the Mishna) that the promise was made to Abraham."