The Gospel gives us Our Lord’s guiding principle for our dealings with our civil governments.
What prompted Jesus to speak on this subject was a conspiracy entered into by the Pharisees and the Herodians. The funny thing was that those groups normally couldn’t stand each other. The Pharisees had been founded two centuries earlier as a protest when their precious temple fell into the hands of men like the Herodians.
Now, though, together they saw Jesus as a threat to the rich living they made from religion. They figured that Jesus would either have to say it was right or it was wrong to pay taxes to Rome. If he said it was right they would say he was against his own people. If he said it was wrong they would turn him over to the Roman authorities.
He tricked them by asking to se the coin. (He was so poor that he had no coin of his own.)
He answered. “Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar and to God what belongs to God.” That meant there was no conflict between our duties to Religion and our duties to the State. Ideally, the State guaranties our free practice of religion, and the church encourages us to use our means and even our lives for the upkeep and protection of our country.